Galvanized

Overview

Hot Dip Galvanizing is one of the most effective and economic processes used to protect steel against atmospheric corrosion. The protection of steel by the zinc coating occurs according to two mechanisms: by the barrier protection, possible due to the coating layer, and galvanic sacrificial protection, in the case of simultaneous exposure of the steel-zinc pair for in small discontinuities of the coating. Another important feature of the zinc coating is its ability to bond metallurgically to the base steel by means of an intermetallic alloy layer, thereby forming a fully integrated system. This product can be produced with the same or different zinc coating per side. The thicker the coating, the greater the durability of the plate. Zinc coatings are classified into: pure zinc with regular spangle (GI) and minimized spangle (GI), and zinc-iron alloy (GA).

Types of Coating

Pure Zn - Minimized Spangle

Surface Appearance

This terminology, minimized spangle, it is applied to the pure Zn coating. It is produced from a Zn bath with or without addition of spangles forming elements and has a bright appearance. In the case of the bath with addition of spangles forming elements, a fast solidification process is required by the action of a coolant. This type of coating is most recommended for applications mainly to painting in the automotive and household appliances (home appliances). It can also be used in the construction industry for specific applications.

Pure Zn - Regular Spangle

Surface Appearance

This kind of Zinc coating is obtained by normal solidification of the deposited layer, resulting in a surface with visible zinc spangles with flowers appearance. This surface is indicated for general applications, especially for the construction industry such as roofing, closures, structural profiles and others.

Pure Zn - Available Coatings to Example of Standard
Standard Coating Designation Coating Mass (g/m 2)
Single-Spot Test Triple-Spot Test
NBR7008/12
Z100 85 100
Z120 100 120
Z140 120 140
Z180 150 180
Z225 195 225
Z275 235 275
Z350 300 350
Z450 385 450
Z600 510 600
Zinc-Iron Alloy - Galvanew

Surface Appearance

This kind of coating is obtained by sheet heating after the deposition of zinc which completely transforms the Zn coating in Zn-Fe alloy layer. This layer contains about 8 to 12% of Fe, and has a matte gray surface appearance. The presence of Fe in the coating improves the resistance spot welding behavior and paint adhesion. Therefore is mainly used in the automotive industry.

Galvanew - Available Coatings to Example of Standard
Standard Coating Designation Coating Mass (g/m 2)
Single-Spot Test Triple-Spot Test
NBR7008/12 ZF100 85 100
ZF120 100 120
ZF140 120 140
ZF180 150 180

Structural

Product Description

Structural steels are generally carbon manganese steels where the high mechanical strength is obtained by a solid solution associated with thermo-mechanical processing conditions. This steel is mainly indicated for flat uses and applications that requires light drawing, simple bendings and corrugations.

Examples of application: Structural profiles, storage silos and structures in general.

Available Dimensions and Examples of Standard Requirements
Thickness Min
(mm)
Thickness Max
(mm)
Width Min
(mm)
Width Max
(mm)
0.5 3.0 700 1500

The combination of thickness x width depends on the grade of the standard and the coating characteristics.

Technical Standard Grade Mechanical Properties (transverse direction)
YS (MPa)
Min.
TS (MPa)
Min.
Elongation
Thickn.
(mm)
Gauge Length Value
(%)
(mm) Min.
NBR7008-3/12 ZAR-230 230 310 Any 50 22
ZAR-250 250 360 17
ZAR-280 280 380 16
ZAR-320 320 390 14
ZAR-345 345 430 12
ZAR-400 400 450 10
ZAR-550 550 570 -

Technical Standard Grade Mechanical Properties (longitudinal direction)
YS (MPa)
Min.
TS (MPa)
Min.
Elongation
Thickn.
mm
Gauge Length
mm
Value Min.
(%)
EN 10346/2009 S220GD 220 300 Any 80 20
S250GD 250 330 19
S280GD 280 360 18
S320GD 320 390 17
S350GD 350 420 16
S550GD 550 560 -

Bake Hardening

Product Description

Bake hardening steels (BH) increase its mechanical strength by the aging phenomena during the painting process in the automotive industry. These steels combine mechanical strength and formability and can be used in exposed panels such as hoods, and roofs (because it has greater resistance to indentation) or structural parts. The good formability is ensured by the low initial values of yield strength. After the drawing and painting of the parts, the yield strength increases, reaching the mechanical strength similar to that of high strength steels.

Examples of application: In the case of lower strength class, exposed automobile parts such as hoods, roofs and door panels. For the classes of higher strength, internal parts in the body structure.

Available Dimensions and Examples of Standard Requirements
Thickness Min
(mm)
Thickness Max
(mm)
Width Min
(mm)
Width Max
(mm)
0.46 0.59 800 1230
0.6 2.5 800 1555

The combination of thickness x width depends on the grade of the standard and the coating characteristics.

Technical Standard Grade Mechanical Properties (transverse direction)
YS (MPa)
min
YS (MPa)
max
TS (MPa)
min
TS (MPa)
max
BH Index
(MPa) min
r90
min
n90
min
Elongation
Thickn.
(mm)
Gauge Length
(mm)
Value min
(%)
NBR7008-4/12 ZARBH180 180 260 300 380 30 1.5 0.16 Any 50 34
ZARBH210 210 300 320 400 30 1.2 0.15 32
ZARBH240 240 320 350 440 30 1.4 0.16 31
ZARBH270 270 340 340 440 30 - - 28
ZARBH300 300 380 380 500 30 - - 26
Technical Standard Grade Mechanical Properties (transverse direction)
YS (MPa)
min
YS (MPa)
max
TS (MPa)
min
TS (MPa)
max
BH Index
(MPa)
min
r90
min
n90
min
Elongation
Thickn.
(mm)
Gauge Length
(mm)
Value min
(%)
EN 10346/2009 HX180BD 180 240 290 360 35 1.5 0.16 Any 80 34
HX220BD 220 280 320 400 35 1.2 0.15 32
HX260BD 260 320 360 440 35 - - 28
HX300BD 300 360 400 480 35 - - 26
HX340BD 340 400 440 520 35 - - 24

High Strength and Low Alloy

Product Description

These are low-carbon steels generally containing additions of niobium, titanium and / or vanadium in order to increase the mechanical strength through the precipitation and grain refinement processes. These steels can also have solid solution hardening elements such as Mn, P and Si. The HSLA steels combine high mechanical strength, good energy absorption capacity and good weldability, properties required to perform well in the automotive industry.

Examples of application: Reinforcement applications such as structural parts

Available Dimensions and Examples of Standard Requirements
Thickness Min
(mm)
Thickness Max
(mm)
Width Min
(mm)
Width Max
(mm)
0.46 2.50 700 1500

The combination of thickness x width depends on the grade of the standard and the coating characteristics.

Technical Standard Grade Mechanical Properties (transverse direction)
YS (MPa)
min
YS (MPa)
max
TS (MPa)
min
TS (MPa)
max
Elongation
Thickness
(mm)
Gauge Length
(mm)
Value (%)
min
NBR7008-6/12 ZARBL260 260 360 340 460 Any 50 26
ZARBL300 300 400 380 500 23
ZARBL340 340 440 400 540 21
ZARBL380 380 500 440 580 19
ZARBL420 420 540 460 620 17
ZARBL460 460 580 500 670 15
Technical Standard Grade Mechanical Properties (transverse direction)
YS (MPa)
min
YS (MPa)
max
TS (MPa)
min
TS (MPa)
max
Elongation
Thickness
(mm)
Gauge Length
(mm)
Value min
(%)
EN 10346/2009 HX260LAD 260 330 350 430 Any 80 26
HX300LAD 300 380 380 480 23
HX340LAD 340 420 410 510 21
HX380LAD 380 480 440 560 19
HX420LAD 420 520 470 590 17
HX460LAD 460 560 500 640 15
HX500LAD 500 620 530 690 13

Advanced High Strength Steels

Product Description

The advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are high strength steels obtained by means of high cooling rates from the austenitic field, in hot rolling, or from the two-phase field (ferrite + austenite) in annealing. These steels are used in vehicles parts that require high impact energy absorption such as bumpers and front and rear spars and high impact resistance such as columns and beams that are part of form the vehicle survival cell. The classification of these steels is according to the tensile strength as a function of its microstructure: dual phase (DP) steels, complex phase (CP) steels, ferritic-bainitic (FB) steels, martensitic steels (MS), transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steels and press hardening steels (PHS). The use is in accordance with the application and the particular characteristics of each type of steel.

Examples of application: In the automotive industry, in structural parts (beams, crossbeams and others).

Available Dimensions and Examples of Standard Requirements
Thickness Min
(mm)
Thickness Max
(mm)
Width Min
(mm)
Width Max
(mm)
0.70 1.96 851 1300

The combination of thickness x width depends on the grade of the standard and the coating characteristics.

Technical Standard Grade Mechanical Properties (longitudinal direction)
YS (MPa)
min
YS (MPa)
max
TS (MPa)
min
BH Index (MPa)
min
Elongation n90(10-20%)
Thickn.
(mm)
Gauge Length
(mm)
Value (%)
min
NBR16284/14 DPLZ600 340 440 30 Any 80 20 0.14
Technical Standard Grade Mechanical Properties (transverse direction)
YS (MPa)
min
YS (MPa)
max
TS (MPa)
min
BH Index (MPa)
min
Elongation n(10- UE)
Thickn.
(mm)
Gauge Length
(mm)
Value (%)
min
EN 10346/2009 HCT600X 340 420 600 30 Any 80 20 0.14

DP600 Table by Euronorm.

High Strength IF

Product Description

High Strength Interstitial Free steels (IF-HSS) are steels that combine mechanical strength and good formability. These steels have a high mechanical strength by addition of alloying hardeners elements by solid solution such as P, Mn and Si.

Examples of Application: The IF-HS steels of low strength have been replacing conventional IF steels in applications such as exposed panels (e.g. doors), and the IF-HS steels of higher strength are used in structural parts.

Available Dimensions and Examples of Standard Requirements
Thickness Min
(mm)
Thickness Max
(mm)
Width Min
(mm)
Width Max
(mm)
0.56 1.8 800 1400

The combination of thickness x width depends on the grade of the standard and the coating characteristics.

Technical Standard Grade Mechanical Properties (transverse direction)
YS (MPa)
min
YS (MPa)
max
TS (MPa)
min
TS (MPa)
max
Elongation r90 n90
Thickn.
(mm)
Av. Base
Gauge Length
Value
(%)
Value Value
(mm) min min min
NBR7008-3/12 ZARIF160 160 240 270 350 Any 50 36 1.8 0.19
ZARIF180 180 260 320 400 34 1.7 0.18
ZARIF210 210 300 340 420 32 1.5 0.17
ZARIF240 240 320 350 440 31 1.4 0.16
ZARIF270 270 340 360 460 30 1.3 0.16
Technical Standard Grade Mechanical Properties (transverse direction)
YS (MPa)
min
YS (MPa)
max
TS (MPa)
min
TS (MPa)
max
Elongation r90 n90
Thickn.
(mm)
Gauge Length Value
(%)
Value Value
(mm) min min min
EN 10346/2009 HX160YD 160 220 300 360 Any 80 37 1.9 0.2
HX180YD 180 240 330 390 34 1.7 0.18
HX220YD 220 280 340 420 32 1.5 0.17
HX260YD 260 320 380 440 30 1.4 0.16
HX300YD 300 360 390 470 27 1.3 0.15

Mild Steels

Product Description

The steels with drawing requirement are steels, with alloy concepts of low carbon (drawing quality) and ultra low carbon IF - Interstitial Free (from deep to extra deep drawing quality), for applications where is required critical forming levels for the, production of the parts used in more complex drawing processes.

Examples of application: In the home appliances are used in refrigerators, washers and microwaves and, depending on the drawing level required, in applications such as gussets, doors, internal cavities and supports. In the automotive industry, these steels are used in exposed and internal panels such as doors, hoods and roofs and some structural parts.

Examples of Standard Requirements
Technical Standard Grade Mechanical Properties (transverse direction)
YS (MPa)
min
YS (MPa)
max
TS (MPa)
max
Elongation r90 Value min n90 Value min
Thickn.
(mm)
Gauge Length
(mm)
Value Min.
(%)
NBR7008-2/12 ZE 140 300 420 Any 50 26 - -
ZEE- Grade 1 140 260 380 31 - -
ZEE- Grade 2 140 220 350 37 1.60 0.18
ZEE- Grade 3 140 200 350 40 1.90 0.21
ZEE- Grade 4 120 180 350 40 1.90 0.21
Technical Standard Grade Mechanical Properties (transverse direction)
YS (MPa)
min
YS (MPa)
max
TS (MPa)
min
TS (MPa)
max
Elongation r90 n90
Thickn.
(mm)
Gauge Length Value
(%)
Value Value
(mm) min Min. Min.
EN 10346/2009 DX52 140 300 270 420 Any 80 26 - -
DX53 140 260 270 380 30 - -
DX54 120 220 260 350 36 1.6 0.18
DX56 120 180 260 350 39 1.9 0.21
DX57 120 170 260 350 41 2.1 0.22

Commercial Quality

Product Description

The steels classified as commercial quality are steels with simple alloy design, for applications where is required minor critical forming levels for the production of the parts where is used bending, roll forming and light stamping processes.

Examples of application: In the home appliances, are used in washers, refrigerators, stoves and microwaves, in applications such as cabinets, gussets, doors and reinforcements in general. These steels are also used in construction industry, mainly on roofing and side covering.

Available Dimensions and Examples of Standard Requirements
Thickness Min
(mm)
Thickness Max
(mm)
Width Min
(mm)
Width Max
(mm)
0.30 3.0 700 1555

The combination of thickness x width depends on the Grade of the standard and the coating characteristics.

Technical Standard Grade Mechanical Properties (transverse direction)
YS (MPa)
min
YS (MPa)
max
TS (MPa)
max
Elongation r90 Value
min
n90 Value
min
Thickn.
(mm)
Gauge Length
(mm)
Value Min.
(%)
NBR7008-2/12 ZC - - Any 50 - - -

Last Update on November 01, 2016

Back Top